This was designed for operations on the mouth. It has thick jaws which fit securely between the molar teeth, and is inserted once the patient’s muscles are relaxed.
This fitted closely to the cheeks making it possible to administer gas or ether whilst it was in position. It includes the addition of side tubes for chloroform.
This apparatus had a bag connected to the ether vessel and to the face piece. There is a tube inside. The regulator determines if the patient breathes into the bag or through the tube and ether vessel.
This had a larger bottle than the original. A face piece with a metal rim carried the air supply into a perforated tube running from back to front of the metal frame. Lint could be put on the mask.
This inhaler’s prototype was made from jam tins. The ether container held soaked sponges. Ombrédanne believed the rebreathing bag might help anaesthesia because it contained carbon dioxide. Small amounts of air were also admitted.
Shipway believed that warm anaesthetic vapours were better for the patient and more pleasant to inhale. This apparatus originally had a hand bellows.
The development of saline infusion was stimulated by war experiences. Saline was first used to treat the shock of cholera by Thomas Latta in 1832. A lot of saline infusions were given subcutaneously and rectally.